Undoubtedly, as Musgrave has concluded, "it seems unlikely that there was only one personal influence on the ," and that both his mother's and Schumann's death were for Brahms "a stimulus to the completion of existing ideas, rather than the source of them." Indeed, on numerous later occasions Brahms was heard to insist that his was intended for all humanity, despite (or indeed because of) its title; its innate themes of melancholy and consolation are applicable to any number of occasions.
But I object to requiems altogether." Later critics such as Britten and Tippet were slightly more lenient, objecting not to the traditional elements but to what they considered its aesthetic failings: Tippet wrote that Brahms had tried to fill the "Beethovenian mould without realising its inherently dramatic nature." Gradually, however, in England as well as in the United States, negative criticisms disappeared, to be replaced by serious academic studies of the origins and construction.
A step beyond the teacher’s assignment
Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality: An Essay on the Social and Moral Thought of Max Weber (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1984), pp. 5 and 6.
Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment , p. 71.
Again, contradiction was the rule: while the , echoing Hanslick's historical contextualization, emotes that in order to find the equal, we must "go back to the soulful conventionality of Handel and Haydn ...
Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.
Edward Bryan Portis, [Max Weber and Political Commitment: Science, Politics, and Personality] (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), p. 75.
"Brahms' Verhältnis zum Chor und Chormusik." In 5.
One rather amusing review came from the , claiming that "it is exceedingly scholarly, but its length and monotonousness are such that it is scarcely likely to impress any but students." Milwaukee, owing perhaps to its German heritage, saw an early premiere of movements 5 and 6 only in October of 1875, and Cincinnati produced a partial performance in 1878, but had to wait until 1884 for the entire work.
Hamburg: Karl Dieter Wagner, 1983.
Ralf Dahrendorf, "Max Weber and Modern Social Science," Ch. 37, [Max Weber and his Contemporaries], eds. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and JÃ¼rgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen & Unwin, 1987), p. 577.
"Johannes Brahms' als religiöses Kunstwerk." In 8.
Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 72, quoting Weber from The Methodology of Social Sciences, trans. Edward A. Shils and Henry A. Finch (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949), p. 72.
Hamburg: Patriotische Gesellschaft, 1990.
Weber sees the damage inherent in failing to openly acknowledge one's values, and the even greater danger in falling prey to the delusion that the analyst can evaluate social facts completely independent of own values. Weber sums up this position in "The Nation State and Economic Policy": "We in particular succumb readily to a special kind of illusion, namely that we are able to refrain entirely from making conscious value judgements of our own." In other words, when the analyst fails to clarify and consciously acknowledge his values, it is unlikely that he can conduct the subsequent analysis impartially. The acknowledgement of a value orientation is the prerequisite to objective evaluation.