YOU WILL BE ASKED A QUESTION RELEVANT TO THE NEW

A great potential pitfall is judging the 99.9+% of humanity that cannot or will refuse to comprehend this essay’s message, and it is almost always their victim-oriented mindset that is their barrier to comprehension. People cannot be talked out of thinking like victims; only experience can shatter their paradigm. Brian’s question regarding whether . I consider humanity a semi-sentient species; the potential for sentience is there, but is rarely realized, as people traded their sentience for the promise of security in a world of scarcity.

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In the late Jurassic, armored stegosaurs and first appeared and used an ornithischian defensive strategy that ceratopsians also developed in the early Cretaceous, which reached its peak with in the late Cretaceous. Today’s is the mammalian equivalent of , but today’s rhinos do not have to face anything as fearsome as , although the most successful predators in Earth’s history, humans, .


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Another important energy concept is efficiency. For the hunter-gatherers who cooked food over the campfire, the energy was used with an efficiency of less than 5% (the energy that benefited the user, such as cooking the food, warming the air, providing light, etc.). When humans began using hearths as they became more sedentary, their energy efficiency increased. As humans built dwellings and fireplaces, energy efficiency increased, and today, energy efficiency in advanced industrialized civilization reaches more than 35%. As humans kept increasing their gross energy input and the efficiency in using the energy, the . Just as , an increased energy surplus meant an easier life and a better chance of survival. In recent years, while the USA’s GDP-per-capita has risen, its energy-consumption-per-capita . Some have argued that it shows how much more efficient the USA’s economy has become, but it is more likely related to the USA’s de-industrialization, as heavy industry has moved to low-wage nations with weak environmental laws. The USA imports more finished goods in which the energy for mining and manufacturing them was used in other nations, like the imperial subsidy that the British received from their colonies, but far more pronounced when the USA is receiving finished industrial goods and not raw materials, as the British received from India. In generating energy, so-called technological societies have as advanced industrial ones, largely due to the .


Carlo Pavolini, Ostia (Bari: Laterza, 2006).

This chapter and the next will survey the disputes of evolutionary lineages and geography that continue all the way to . The debates and drama have two primary sources: the first is that humans are descendants from those lines and the second is that there has been a desire to demonstrate that humanity radically differs from its ancestors, possessed of unique traits, not only in degree, but in kind. The debates seem to get fiercer the closer the primate line gets to modern humans.

Significant Energy Events in Earth's and Life's History as of 2014

Although , when the late-Eocene cooling began, Africa became the primary primate refuge. Around the early Oligocene, a from Africa and evolved in isolation for the next 30 million years. Just as , simians marginalized prosimians, beginning in the Oligocene. Today’s prosimians either live where simians do not, or where they coexist with simians, they are nocturnal. Prosimians have simple social organization; most nocturnal prosimians lead solitary existences. have societies of up to 20. Monkeys have far more complex social organization than prosimians, and , although societies of about 50 are typical. Capuchins are considered the most intelligent New World monkeys, and their societies have . Studies of simian societies have shown them engaging in crude versions of human politics, which , which has caused some to .