Chronic hepatitis with a large predominance of plasma cells: AUTOIMMUNE (LUPOID) HEPATITIS (chronic active hepatitis from any cause can look the same) Chronic hepatitis with lots of fatty change in a non-drinker (and nothing that says NASH):HEPATITIS CMallory's hyaline in zone 3, plus fat and polys: ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS / NASH (also considerileal bypass or amiodarone toxicity) Random confluent-lytic necrosis: UNUSUAL VIRAL INFECTIONS, IN A BABY OR IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PERSON (* CMV, herpes simplexor zoster, adenovirus, echovirus; also consider whether the biopsy was obtained duringsurgery) Polys in the lumens of bile ducts: ASCENDING CHOLANGITIS * Mallory's hyaline in zone 1: Wilson's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, amiodarone * Lipofuscin in Kupffer cells: A sign of recent (last few months) hepatocellular necrosis * d-PAS positive stuff in Kupffer cells: A marker that the patient is on hyperalimentation Polys in the portal areas, bile duct proliferation: Chronic or intermittent bile duct obstruction Bile lakes, bile duct proliferation, edema of the portal areas: Acute bile duct obstruction.
Because all such ideologies cater to self-interest, the effort attracts those of corrupt motivation from the outset and is easily defeated by organized suppression, if it does not internally collapse before then;
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At that time, 2007, I was taking a break from the lost civilization mystery that had absorbed my energies, and been the subject of so many of my books, for so long. The article tweaked my curiosity, however, because it referred to the exact epoch that I had focused on in my books. The article didn’t speak of a lost civilization, but began with a reference to the so-called “Clovis” culture of North America (named after the type site at Blackwater Draw near the town of Clovis, New Mexico, where the characteristic “fluted point” stone weaponry of the Clovis culture was first found). This culture mysteriously vanished from the archaeological record during the Younger Dryas between 12,800 and 11,600 years ago. The article addressed the mystery:
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Perhaps a few hundred million years after the first mitochondrion appeared, as the oceanic oxygen content, at least on the surface, increased as a result of oxygenic photosynthesis, those complex cells learned to use oxygen instead of hydrogen. It is difficult to overstate the importance of learning to use oxygen in respiration, called . Before the appearance of aerobic respiration, life generated energy via and . Because oxygen , aerobic respiration generates, on average, about per cycle as fermentation and anaerobic respiration do (although some types of anaerobic respiration can get ). The suite of complex life on Earth today would not have been possible without the energy provided by oxygenic respiration. At minimum, nothing could have flown, and any animal life that might have evolved would have never left the oceans because the atmosphere would not have been breathable. With the advent of aerobic respiration, became possible, as it is several times as efficient as anaerobic respiration and fermentation (about 40% as compared to less than 10%). Today’s food chains of several levels would be constrained to about two in the absence of oxygen. Some scientists have and oxygen and respiration in eukaryote evolution. is controversial.
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Mass extinction events may be the result of multiple ecosystem stresses that reach the level where the ecosystem unravels. Other than the meteor impact that destroyed the dinosaurs, the rest of the mass extinctions seem to have multiple contributing causes, and each one ultimately had an energy impact on life processes. The processes can be complex and scientists are only beginning to understand them. This essay will survey mass extinction events and their aftermaths in some detail, as they were critical junctures in the journey of life on Earth.