Sociological explanations of prejudice incorporate some of the principles and processes discussedin previous chapters. One popular explanation emphasizesconformity and socialization(also calledsocial learning theory). In this view, people who are prejudiced are merely conforming to the culture in which they growup, and prejudice is the result of socialization from parents, peers, the news media, and othervarious aspects of their culture. Supporting this view, studies have found that people tend tobecome more prejudiced when they move to areas where people are very prejudiced and less prejudicedwhen they move to locations where people are less prejudiced (Aronson, 2008).If people in the South today continue to be more prejudiced than those outside the South, as wediscuss later, even though legal segregation ended more than four decades ago, the influence oftheir culture on their socialization may help explain these beliefs.
Although racial and ethnic prejudice still exists in the United States, its nature has changedduring the past half-century. Studies of these changes focus on whites' perceptions of AfricanAmericans. Back in the 1940s and before, an era of overt,Jim Crowracism (also calledtraditionalorold-fashionedracism) prevailed, not just in the South but in the entire nation. This racism involved blatantbigotry, firm beliefs in the need for segregation, and the view that blacks were biologicallyinferior to whites. In the early 1940s, for example, more than half of all whites thought thatblacks were less intelligent than whites, more than half favored segregation in publictransportation, more than two-thirds favored segregated schools, and more than half thought whitesshould receive preference over blacks in employment hiring (Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, & Krysan,1997).
. The future of Crime in America. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1987
be as . Some people disagree and others agree. can be tired as committing crimes such as a DUI,minor in possession,robbery,rape,murder and any other crimes committed by an . The can be punished under the law. The law states that although most states try .
Understanding How Young Children Learn
Bobo, L., Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, R. A. (1997). Laissez-faire racism: The crystallization of akinder, gentler, antiblack ideology. In S. A. Tuch & J. K. Martin (Eds.),Racial attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and change(pp. 1544). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Understanding Children's Motivation
Much controversy exists on the question of whether a juvenile criminal should be punished to the same extent as an adult. Those who commit capitol crimes, including adolescents, should be penalized according to the law. Age should not be a factor in the case of serious crimes. Many people claim that the child did not know any better, or that he was brought up with the conception that this behavior is acceptable. Although there is some truth to these allegations, the reality of this social issue is far more complex. Therefore we ask the question, "Should childhood offenders of capitols crimes be treated as adults?"
To begin with, numerous reasons for why a child acts in the manner he exhibits and why he continues to exert such dangerous and even fatal schemes. Recent research shows that factors ranging from inherited personality traits to chemical imbalances and damages suffered in the womb can increase the odds that a child will become violent (Johnson 234). Experts argue that no one is predestined to a life of crime. They believe that influences such as repeated abuse, extreme neglect, poverty, media violence, and easy access to guns play the major role in molding children into criminals. The father of serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer wonders, "If potential for evil is in the blood that some of us pass on to our children" (Seifert 23).
In the quiet New York town of Savona, Eric Smith, age thirteen, intercepted four year old Derrick Robie on his way to a park recreation program and offered to show him a shortcut. Hesitatingly, Derrick set off with Eric. He never made it to the park. That same day the little boy's savagely beaten body was discovered outside the park area (Seifert 98).
Jon Venables and Robert Thompson of Liverpool, England, made international headlines in November of 1994, when they were convicted of murdering James Bulger, age two. The two boys, both ten at the time of the slaying, lured James away from his mother in a shopping mall, took him to a nearby railroad track, beat him brutally and left him to be cut in half by a train (Seifert 56).
Many experts do not accept that biology alone creates children who kill. They believe that violence is a learned behavior. Being abused or witnessing domestic violence is an environmental factor in ju.
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The juvenile correction system is about one hundred years old and has been revised. This system has a positive outlook on what juveniles in trouble can become. They believe that juveniles can be rehabilitated and taught differently. They believe.