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The compare-and-contrast essay starts with a thesis that clearly states the two subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both and the reason for doing so. The thesis could lean more toward comparing, contrasting, or both. Remember, the point of comparing and contrasting is to provide useful knowledge to the reader. Take the following thesis as an example that leans more toward contrasting.

How did the Great Compromise cause the two chambers of Congress to differ in a number of ways?

In this example, we have a file with terminators, and we must use the attribute to specify the terminator. If you thought it was a little messy to say in old-style format files, it does not get any better here, but you need to use XML-entities and say. (And if you mistakenly use instead, the error message may not be that helpful.)

Comparison and Contrast Diagram

This two-house legislature plan worked for all states and became known as the Great Compromise.

By default, BCP ignores the regional settings on your computer, which has to be said to be a good thing, because this gives a uniform behaviour from computer to computer. But if you have a file where dates are formatted according to your regional settings, use the option .

Here is a format file, , for the file above:

The second property is the data type , not in the table. For a text file you should always specify for all fields, unless you have a Unicode file in in encoding in which case you should use . You should never use types like , etc. as they apply to binary data only.

To load the file into the tables you would use any of these commands:

The first header line specifies the version of the format-file format. Above I have used 9.0, which is the same as SQL 2005. There is not really any difference between the formats from 8.0 and up, but if you use a version number that is higher than your version of BCP or , you get an error message. (Which for BCP confusingly talks about XML.) Lower versions of the format are always accepted, why using 9.0 seems like a good idea.

To load , we use the format file with a prefix length of 1:

When the bulk-load tools read a field, they need to know when to stop reading bytes for that field. This information is conveyed in the properties three to five: prefix length, fixed length and field terminator in that order. The latter is what you most commonly will use with a text file, so we will start there.

-------------- -------- ----------------- ----

The field terminator is a string of one to ten characters enclosed in double quotes. If the terminator includes a double quote, you need to escape it with a backslash, as we saw in above. There are a few more escape sequences you need to know: is for the backslash itself, = tab, = carriage return (CR) and = line-feed (LF). Note that in format files there is no special interpretation of as two characters; this only happens with the options and . Thus, to specify a regular Windows line-break as the field terminator, you use .

Second record 4711 End of 2nd record N

To load this file, you would use a format file where you specify the field widths in the fourth property in the format file. Here is one possibility, :