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The ability to weigh various isotopes, at increasing levels of precision, with mass spectrometers has provided a gold mine of data. Scientists are continually inventing new methods and ways to use them, new questions are asked and answered, and some examples of methods and findings follow.

Bioluminescence research at Connecticut College is expanding the boundaries of science.

In 1969, Fuller published , which when I read it in 2003. Before reading Fuller, I was a “seat-of-the-britches” comprehensivist who had never heard of comprehensivists. The title of Fuller’s book could well have been, “The Fifth Epochal Event or the Sixth Mass Extinction (that takes humanity with it).”

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Other than humans, rhesus macaques are Earth’s most widespread primates, and both species are generalists whose ability to adapt has been responsible for their success. Rhesus macaques are , about twice that of dogs and cats, and nearly as much as chimpanzees. Rhesus macaques have what is called Machiavellian social organization, in which everybody is continually vying for rank and power is everything. Those with rhesus power get the most and best food, the best and safest sleeping places, mating privileges, the nicest environments to live in, and endless grooming by subordinates, whom the dominants can beat and harass whenever they want, while those low in the hierarchies get the scraps and are usually the first to succumb to the vagaries of rhesus life, including predation. It is the . But even the lowliest macaque will become patriotic cannon fodder if his society faces an external threat, as even a macaque knows that a miserable life is better than no life at all. The violence inflicted seems economically optimized; within a society the violence is mostly harassment, but when rival societies first come in contact, the violence is often lethal, as the initially established dominance can last for lifetimes. Within a society, killing a subordinate does not make economic sense, as that subordinate supports the hierarchy. Potentates rely on slaves. The human smile evolved from the teeth-baring display of monkeys that connotes fear or submission.

Evidence that includes information from one source (weak evidence):

During the urbanization of the High Middle Ages, and even with the spread of watermills, Europe’s workforce was still about 80% devoted to farming. The productivity of industrialized agriculture led to the great decline in agricultural workers. By 1800, less than 40% of the English workforce was involved in agriculture. As late as 1870, more than 70% of the USA’s workforce was still engaged in agriculture, and that figure .

dissertation servant leadership and job satisfaction

Few would argue that industrialized peoples live in the best of all possible worlds, but industrialization triggered those changes, and few would say that they did not benefit humanity. In very real terms, an , as it provided choices either previously unimaginable or unavailable to non-elites. All non-industrialized peoples long to enjoy the benefits of industrialization. The only pristine industrialization was the UK’s, which influenced other nations’ industrialization experiences. After World War II, Europe lost its empires. Imperialism was partly replaced by that the USA largely imposed, and its intentions were made , but once the imperial masters were gone, all newly freed nations embarked on industrialization if they could. The key constraints were access to hydrocarbon fuels and the ability to exploit them.

'A World Apart' features student dancers and choreography.

Although slavery’s end is not considered part of the demographic transition, the demographic transition and slavery’s end had the same ultimate cause: the rising standard of living of industrialized lifestyles that made exploitation of children, women, and slaves uneconomical. Also, as people became more affluent, they developed new levels of social conscience.