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Wrangham’s hypothesis is more robust and subtle than this essay can do justice to, but I will survey some of the findings, implications, and controversy. Raw food has various nutritional properties that are superior to cooked food, such as vitamins, but because cooked food provides more digestible calories for humans than raw food, it represented an evolutionary advantage. Meat, starches, and seeds are far more digestible when cooked, and are much easier to chew. Today, chimps in will not eat raw seeds of trees, but when a fire passes through the savanna, they search the ground below the trees and eat their cooked seeds.

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Those interrelated and often mutually reinforcing lines of evidence have made many scientific findings difficult to deny. The ever-advancing scientific toolset, and the ingenuity of scientists developing and using them, and particularly the multidisciplinary approach that scientists and scholars are increasingly using, have made for radical changes in how we view the past. Those radical changes will not end any time soon, and what follows will certainly be modified by new discoveries and interpretations, but I have tried to stay largely within the prevailing findings, hypotheses, and theories, while also poking into the fringes and leading edges somewhat. Any mistakes in fact or interpretation in what follows are mine.


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Low-oxygen Mesozoic oceans saw the rise of unusual biomes. In methane seeps in the Mesozoic’s global ocean floor, bivalves and brachiopods formed symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic organisms that digested methane. All over the world, scientists have been amazed to find rock layers almost entirely comprised of shells of those innovative, low-oxygen surviving shelled animals.


The Great Barrier Reef: an Obituary

Also, each Epochal Event was , perhaps even by , and even the Industrial Revolution and its attendant Scientific Revolution had few fathers. However, I came to realize that there is probably , and even Indiana Jones cannot save the world by himself. With the strategy that I finally developed, I do not because I know that there are not enough currently walking Earth. I am attempting something far more modest. The is making free energy technology and the resulting epoch of abundance , and all of , which is largely why my former partner and my astronaut colleague were voices in the wilderness and like ducks in a shooting gallery that did not know where the next shot would come from. The most damaging shots were usually fired by their “,” right into their backs, which nobody could have convinced me of in 1985. But after play out dozens of times, , and my partner admitted it to me in 2013.

Antony on BBC4's Loose Ends last year

I noticed several crippling weaknesses in all alternative energy efforts that I was involved with or witnessed. Most importantly, when my partner mounted his efforts, people participated primarily to serve their self-interest. While the pursuit of mutual self-interest is the very definition of politics, self-interested people were easily defeated by organized suppression, although the efforts usually self-destructed before suppression efforts became intense. Another deficiency in all mass free energy efforts was that most participants were scientifically illiterate and did not see much beyond the possibility of reducing their energy bills or becoming rich and famous. Once the effort was destroyed (and they are, if they have any promise), the participants left the alternative energy field. Also, many lives were wrecked as each effort was defeated, so almost nobody was able or willing to try again. Every time that my partner rebuilt his efforts, it was primarily with new people; few individuals lasted for more than one attempt.