B. What factors led to a declaration of war?

Japan and the U.S. both entered the imperial competition in Asia at the turn of the 20th century, Japan in Korea and the U.S. in the Philippines. Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Russia had already established control over large areas of Asia.

C. What conflict arose with the Indians prior to the War of 1812?

Some 400 Korean civilians in Taejon were killed by retreating communist forces in late Sept. 1950. Looking on at left is Gordon Gammack, war correspondent of the Des Moines Register and Tribune. (AP Photo/James Pringle)


D. What happened during the War of 1812?

2. The British Burn Washington D.C.

1. Britain and the United States signed the Treaty ofGhent. In this treaty the British formally recognized the existenceof the United States and gave up all claims to most land south ofCanada.


U.S. Marines in North Korea, Dec. 1950

Some 1,800 South Korean political prisoners were executed by the South Korean military at Taejon, South Korea, in July 1950 (AP Photo/National Archives, once classified as “top secret”)

It took more than two years to agree on a truce on July 26, 1953

President Truman established the principle of U.S. intervention against “communist aggression” in March 1947 (Truman Doctrine); the U.S. sent aid but not troops to anti-communist factions in Greece and China

F86 Sabre jet fighter, Jan. 31, 1951

Nichols subsequently won a spot in the Army’s Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) and became a police adviser in South Korea during the period of U.S. occupation. He began developing teams of secret agents who would infiltrate the South Korean Labor Party and identify threats of sabotage and “commy cells.” Through his work, Nichols developed a close friendship with South Korean leader Syngman Rhee and became one of his closest advisers.

U.S. fighter aircraft loaded with rockets

3. The Americans were ready, waiting for the redcoats. The Britishcommander ordered a frontal assault. Before he was killed, he watchedhis soldiers fall down in rows. Jackson instantly became know as theHero of New Orleans.

Pyongyang after U.S. bombing, 1953

Nichols met weekly and supplied arms to Kim “Snake” Chang-ryong, a former Japanese military officer who served as Rhee’s right-hand man for anticommunist score-settling and vengeance. The “snake” was believed to have masterminded the execution of thousands of South Koreans, according to the findings of a later government inquiry. Nichols sat in on police torture sessions where the water torture method was employed and suspects were burned with lit cigarettes and wired to a wooden-cross and subjected to electroshocks. The capture and execution of senior communist leaders was often confirmed by cutting off their heads and sending them in gasoline cans to army headquarters in Seoul. A photo of Nichols shows him and several other army officers inspecting the heads; in another, the head of a guerrilla leader was being pulled out of its box by the hair.

Historian and presidential adviser Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.

b) The American fleet on Lake Eric defeated a British fleet. TheAmericans regained Detroit, and two American armies invaded Canada,winning the battles at the Thames River, York (Toronto), and FortGeorge.