Researchers at the Universidad Centro Americana and the Institute for Gender Studies say a number of factors explain this increase—growing awareness among women that the cultural traditions that foster violence are no longer acceptable under international law and the Nicaraguan Domestic Violence Law, and better reporting of cases as women are encouraged to speak out. However, as Nicaraguan women have more actively opposed male hegemony, domestic conflicts have also increased and more men have resorted to intimate partner violence. These findings suggest that responses to intimate partner violence must not focus exclusively on women, but must also target men to prevent this type of backlash (Schopper et al., 2006).
One dating violence prevention program that has been well evaluated using a randomized controlled design is Safe Dates. Positive effects were noted in all four published evaluations (Foshee et al., 1998, 2000, 2004, 2005). Foshee et al. (2005) examined the effects of Safe Dates in preventing or reducing perpetration and victimization over time using four waves of follow-up data. The program significantly reduced psychological, moderate physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration at all four follow-up periods. The program also significantly reduced severe physical dating abuse perpetration over time, but only for adolescents who reported no or average prior involvement in severe physical perpetration at baseline. Program effects on the experiencing of sexual dating violence over time were marginal. Safe Dates did not prevent or reduce the experiencing of psychological dating abuse. Program effects were primarily due to changes in dating violence norms, gender role norms, and awareness of community services. The program did not affect conflict-management skills. The program was found to have had a greater impact upon primary prevention as opposed to preventing re-abuse among those with a history of previous abuse (Foshee et al., 1996, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2008).
Ways to Prevent Domestic Violence and Abuse Essay
focuses on these elements of the cycle as they relate to interrupting this transmission of violence. Intervention strategies include preventing violence before it starts as well as preventing recurrence, preventing adverse effects (such as trauma or the consequences of trauma), and preventing the spread of violence to the next generation or social level. Successful strategies consider the context of the violence, such as family, school, community, national, or regional settings, in order to determine the best programs.
Writing an essay on domestic violence
A five-year project (2007-2012) funded by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is currently under way, which will develop, test, and evaluate a program to reduce intimate partner violence among low-income women enrolled in the Nurse Family Partnership during pregnancy and in the first two years postpartum. The Nurse Family Partnership is a nurse home visitation program of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment. The primary aims are to develop a model for an in-home intimate partner violence prevention program for enrolled mothers at risk of such violence, to test the feasibility and acceptability of the program, and in a randomized controlled study to compare the effectiveness of the approach to that of the Nurse Family Partnership alone.
Ways to Prevent Domestic Violence and Abuse
The results of the SASA! evaluation are expected to provide further evidence on the effectiveness of this type of program, which seems to have potential for reducing intimate partner violence. There is a need to replicate and scale up this type of approach. Several other participatory and community-empowerment strategies to prevent intimate partner violence may be of value, although these have seldom been implemented as primary prevention strategies or rigorously evaluated. Couples counseling focuses on violence and/or substance abuse and may be effective for couples who have not resorted to intimate partner violence but who may be at risk. Family programs to promote positive communication and healthy relationships and prevent family violence might also be effective in preventing both intimate partner and sexual violence, given the importance of family factors in their development. In Ecuador one intimate partner violence prevention program that was implemented (but not evaluated) consisted of close friends or relatives being assigned to “monitor” newlyweds and to intervene should serious conflict arise. There is also some initial evidence that social cohesion among residents increases a community’s capacity to manage crime and violence (by increasing “collective efficacy”), leading to decreases in both lethal and non-lethal intimate partner violence. Such community-level interventions can beneficially change community-level characteristics and warrant further evaluation.