Here is an overview of the process:

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

 When you think about analysis, try thinking about how you might analyze a car.

Caution! Make sure that you're NOT just summarizing the original article, story, novel, poem, etc. Go beyond simply telling us WHAT you are talking about: describe HOW and WHY its elements function.


Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

We encourage the educational use of the OWL. The  explains the specific permissions granted.

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.


A forward slash (/) now separates the names of copublishers (108).

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

For works in a language not written in the Latin alphabet, writers must choose between giving titles and quotations in romanization or in the language’s writing system (74, 91).

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. 2006.

If a block quotation of prose contains internal paragraphing, the first line of the quotation now begins without a paragraph indention even if one is present in the source (77).

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a website whose title is the same name as its publisher, a website that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR).

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, .

The common practice of documenting borrowings from Greek, Roman, and medieval works with part numbers, not page numbers alone, is described (122).