Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved from
Smith, M. K. (2002). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved from . Last updated: August 23, 2007.
Extending and refining knowledge
Thus, formative assessment plays a major role, and its importance should not be overlooked in our zeal to prepare students for mandated accountability tests. See of this essay for more on the role of assessment.
Learn more about the history of differentiated instruction.
Visit . Peeragogy is a collection of techniques for collaborative learning and collaborative work. This handbook is a "living-document" created by a world-wide community of editors interested in peer-to-peer learning. The ideas can be applied in classrooms, in research, in business, and more.
Mastery style--tend to work step-by-step
The original VALUE initiative in 2007-09 involved teams of faculty and other educational professionals from over 100 higher education institutions engaged over many months to develop 16 VALUE rubrics for the LEAP Essential Learning Outcomes. Each rubric was developed from the most frequently identified characteristics or criteria of learning for each of the 16 learning outcomes. Drafts of each rubric were then tested by faculty with their own students’ work on over 100 college campuses.
Understanding style--search for patterns, categories, reasons
Robert Slavin (2014), director of the Center for Research and Reform in Education, discussed five strategies to make cooperative learning powerful. He stated, "It is the "learning" in cooperative learning that is too often left out. But it needn't be. Using these five strategies, teachers can get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that collaboration enhances learning" (para. 3):
Compacting--giving students credit for what they already know;
As part of AAC&U’s Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP) initiative, the VALUE rubrics contribute to the national dialogue on assessment of college student learning. Since the initial release of the rubrics, more than thirty-two thousand first time individuals have visited the VALUE website between June 2010 and January 2014. The VALUE rubrics have been viewed at more than fifty-six hundred discrete institutions, including schools, higher education associations, and more than thirty-three hundred colleges and universities in the United States and around the world.
Negotiated delay of due dates and times for tasks;
Some might not appreciate the true essence of cooperative learning, a feature employed in differentiating instruction. Learners are responsible for not just their own learning, but the learning of others. Shared learning leads to success for all, as each member of a learning group has a specific role to play in reaching a common goal. Successful groups include positive interdependence--if one fails, the entire group is affected. There is both individual and group accountability; although some work might be completed individually, some must be accomplished by group interactions. Typicalinclude think-pair-share, the three-step interview, the jigsaw, and numbered heads. might include focused listing to brainstorm or examine concepts and descriptions, structured problem solving, one-minute papers, paired annotations, guided reciprocal peer questioning, and send-a-problem.