- see General Resources below).

What is the mechanism which makes unconditional scientific propheciespossible? The answer is that such prophecies can sometimes be derivedfrom a combination of conditional predictions (themselves derived fromscientific laws) and existential statements specifying thatthe conditions in relation to the system being investigated arefulfilled. Schematically, this can be represented as follows:

Hamilton, Paul. Historicism. New Critical Idiom. New York: Routledge, 1996. DOI:

The other major "contradiction" potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of "post-historical" Europe like Northern Ireland.


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THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing "Common Marketization" of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states.


New Historicism « The Virtual Theorist - Blogs @ BCU

What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.

New historicism is based on parallel readings ..

In later years Popper came under philosophical criticism for hisprescriptive approach to science and his emphasis on the logic offalsification. This was superseded in the eyes of many by thesocio-historical approach taken by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure ofScientific Revolutions (1962), who—in arguing for theincommensurability of rival scientific paradigms—reintroducedthe idea that change in science is essentially dialectical and isdependent upon the establishment of consensus within communities ofresearchers.

The literary text is not prioritized in any new historicist essay

The annexation of Austria in 1938 became the catalyst which promptedPopper to refocus his writings on social and political philosophy andhe published The Open Society and Its Enemies, his critiqueof totalitarianism, in 1945. In 1946 he moved to England to teach atthe London School of Economics, and became professor of logic andscientific method at the University of London in 1949. From this pointon his reputation and stature as a philosopher of science and socialthinker grew enormously, and he continued to write prolifically—a number of his works, particularly The Logic of ScientificDiscovery (1959), are now widely seen as pioneering classics inthe field. However, he combined a combative personality with a zealfor self-aggrandisement that did little to endear him to professionalcolleagues at a personal level. He was ill-at-ease in thephilosophical milieu of post-war Britain which was, as he saw it,fixated with trivial linguistic concerns dictated by Wittgenstein,whom he considered to be his nemesis. Popper was a somewhatparadoxical man, whose theoretic commitment to the primacy of rationalcriticism was counterpointed by hostility towards anything thatamounted to less than total acceptance of his own thought, and inBritain—as had been the case in Vienna—he becameincreasingly an isolated figure, though his ideas continued to inspireadmiration.