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Origenian doctrine is a type of . Origen based his idea on verses such as 1 John 2:2, which states that Christ took away the sins of the "whole" world, implying the mundus in toto, rather than the saints alone, and Timothy 2:4-2:6, which asserts God "wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth," and that Christ was a ransom or sacrifice for "all men." Origen argued that, since God is all powerful, his desires cannot be thwarted; therefore, it must come to pass eventually that every soul God creates will come to that salvation, as it makes no sense for a loving Father like God to punish his erring children forever rather than remedially and temporarily. Accordingly, Origen thought that after death, in some mysterious way, spirits could come to turn back to God after dying in sin. That might (depending on the particular heterodox theologian) come about through reincarnation (God giving the sinner a second chance to choose the right path) or alternatively, while Hell's fires are never quenched, God might remove the soul from those hellfires when it turned to sincere repentence. Saint Augustine of Hippo strongly opposed this doctrine, and the Fifth Ecumenical Council in 553 AD declared Origen's beliefs to be heretical.

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OLYMPIAN: Known as the "theoi," in Greek, the Olympian deities were those gods in Greco-Roman mythology who resided or frequently met on the top of Mount Olympus as part of Zeus' advisors and close family. They were traditionally numbered at twelve, though accounts varied slightly in which deities fell into this category. The Greeks saw the Olympian deities as contrasting with both the Twelve Titans (whom Zeus overthrew to establish his own reign) and with the older gods (i.e., the spirits of the dead, and fertility spirits of blood and vengeance associated the earth).


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OGAM (also spelled ogham, pronounced either OH-yeem or AG-em): The term comes from Old Irish "Oghma," probably an eponym of Oghma the Irish god of invention. It refers to a form of symbolic Celtic markings common in the 5th and 6th centuries in which a communicant would scratch or notch a series of marks on the edge of a stone or on a stick to indicate sounds or letters. The number and direction of the scratches or notches indicated the specific sound to form a word, and together they constituted an entire writing system. Ogam markings are commonly found on Irish standing stones, tombs, and boundary markers, and the alphabet the Irish used consisted of 20 letters, though slightly different systems existed in Wales and in Europe. Click here for a .


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ORNAMENTALISM: In 19th-century Russian literary history, a term for elaborate prose style in which the manner of narration is more significant than its content. The resulting quality was not necessarily ornate or beautiful--it could be ugly and plain--but the key trait was that the ornamental style deliberately called attention to itself (Harkins 268). It became the dominant writing style in Russian prose in the 1920s (268).

Literary Terms and Definitions O - Carson-Newman …

OPOYAZ: In early 20th-century Russia, the abbreviated name of the Society for the Study of Poetic Language--a group of young philogists and literary theorists who gathered in 1916 and who became instrumental in creating the Formalist School of Russian literary criticism (Harkins 267).

Reader Response Criticism: An Essay – Literary Theory …

ONTOLOGY--The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of existence: what things exist and in what ways they exist. This branch often contrasts with epistemology--the branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of knowledge--i.e., how we know something, in what ways we can know something, and what mental limitations prevent us from knowing certain things.

The Use of Symbolism and Foreshadowing in the Play Oedipus Rex

Psychologically and sociologically, this tendency toward othering might have originated in humanity's tribal past, which required bands to cohere together as a close-knit groups and struggle against other tribal bands. The tendency is to feel stronger connections and allegiances to those who are "like you," and have an easier time empathizing with them, while rejecting or deriding "the Other" as inferior, strange, dangerous, savage, or foreign--often in connection with stereotypes or while simplistically lumping diverse groups together in a single category. Partly this mental process allows the thinker to do violence or harm to the Other without feeling corresponding guilt for one's actions, which can make othering a dangerous phenomenon in multi-ethnic or biracial societies. On the other hand, othering may have a positive function in helping form one's identity--as it is one way to create a sense of self by contrasting one's own group with external ones. In its original use , Said's interest was how European writers "othered" the cultures of the Middle East and Asia, depicting them as mystical rather than rational in mental outlook, pleasure-seeking and indulgent rather than disciplined and abstemious in behavior, and tyrannical rather than democratic in political tendencies. At best, western writers would use the Orient as a contrasting point with their own cultures, and at worst, psychologically project their own repressed (and unsavory) desires and practices on them. However, the term is widely applicable even outside of the Oriental context.