The "Pennsylvania System" (named after the 1829 Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia) kept prisoners in solitary, silent, and anonymous confinement, as the equivalent of monastic penitents (hence "penitentiary"), for them to reflect on their crimes and reform through repentance ().
On the other hand, an "altruistic moral aestheticism" [or, simply, "altruistic aestheticism"] is not a moral fallacy; for this only means that a person may act for the good of others if this seems good, which is unobjectionable as long as the action respects the autonomy of others, i.e.
Grammar-related exercises can be found .
Speaking of grace before meals, Lamb proposes "a devotional exercise proper to be said before reading the Fairy Queen" Works, ed. Lucas (1903) 2:91-92.
All ethical goods are morally absolutized.
A good example of how perplexing Kant's principle can be in its abstractness comes from Lewis White Beck's own introduction to his translation of the .
For further comment on this subject, see the .
Whether he allows that or not, however, we should already be able to see that universalization alone underdetermines the circumstances and requirements of morality.
The precise contrary is the truth.
The maxim of the geologist, after all, is not to take rocks just for one's own personal diversion, but to take a few rocks, under controlled and authorized conditions, on behalf of science and knowledge, which after a fashion is in the interest of the rocks themselves.
[Leonard Nelson, (originally ) Vol.
This criticism, however, overlooks the fact that Kant carefully distinguishes between actions that conform to law (legal actions) and those done because of a law (moral actions).
II, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1971, p.
No one would know that the rocks were petrified wood in the first place if it were not for the geologists, which means the rocks only have meaning and value because of geology.
The claims of this stuff are infantile.
It is not a moral duty for me to write my name in my books because the maxim of writing my name in my books can be universalized with as little contradiction as the maxim of doing it.