Though the unity of humanity is never more than a unity founded oncommunication, precisely because we can communicate, the differencesamong us are never absolute. Furthermore, no one of us alone could bea person. Though each of us has an individual identity, our identitiesshow that we are bound up with others: “Man is this plural andcollective unity in which the unity of destination and the differencesof destinies are to be understood through each other”(Fallible Man, 138).
This critique is found in the essays collected in The Conflict ofInterpretations (1969) and in Ricoeur’s detailedphilosophical reading of Freud, Freud and Philosophy (1970).Freud’s own philosophy turns out to be an archaeology of thesubject aimed at a theory of culture (civilization and itsdiscontents), but it lacks the required corresponding teleology of thesubject that would allow for human creativity and a capable humanbeing. These investigations reinforced Ricoeur’s view that thereis no unmediated self-understanding, leading to a turn to a moredialectic method in his work. This is an approach through which heseeks to find the middle term that can mediate between two polar termsand allow us to move back and forth between them. Locating such amediating term leads to enhanced understanding. It always comes aboutthrough interpretation but is also itself open to critique. In otherwords, it is a method that mediates and negotiates rather than removesthe conflict of interpretations.
Berdan - Anna Torti - Victor I.
Dostoyevsky graduated from engineering school but chose a literary career. His first published work, a translation of Balzac's novel appeared in a St. Petersburg journal in 1844. Two years later, he published his first novel, (1846;), a naturalistic tale with a clear social message as well as a delicate description of life's tragic aspects as manifested in everyday existence. The twenty-four-year-old author became an overnight celebrity when Vissarion Belinsky, the most influential critic of the day, praised Dostoyevsky for his social awareness and declared him the literary successor of Gogol. Dostoyevsky joined Belinsky's literary circle but later broke with it when the critic reacted coldly to his subsequent works. Belinsky judged the novel (1846;) and the short stories (1846;) and (1847; ) as devoid of a social message.
SokolovDissertation: - Clyde W.
A previous section discussed a controversial argument thatcooperation is rational in a PD when each player knows that the otheris enough like himself to make it likely that they will choose thesame move. An analog of this argument in the evolutionary context ismore obviously cogent. If agents are not paired at random, but ratherare more likely to play others employing similar strategies, thencooperative behavior is more likely to emerge.
Blosser - James Simpson - Candace Lines - William L.
A strategy s for an evolutionary game hasuniversal strong narrow stability(“usn-stability”) if a population playing strategy (s)will, under any rule of evolution, drive to extinction anysufficiently small group of invaders all of which play the samestrategy. An evolutionary game has usn-stability just in case it meetsa simple condition on payoffs identified by Maynard Smith:
Stull - Norton Resource Library - Robert H.
One might expect it to be possible to predict the strategies that willprevail in EPDs meeting various conditions, and to justify suchpredictions by formal proofs. Until recently, however, mathematicalanalyses of the EPD have been plagued by conceptual confusions about“evolutionary stability,” the condition under which, asNowak and Sigmund say, “evolution stops”. Axelrod andAxelrod & Hamilton claim to show that TFT isevolutionarily stable. Selten 1983, includes an example of a game withno evolutionarily stable strategy, and Selten's argument that there isno such strategy clearly applies to the EPD and otherevolutionary games. Boyd and Lorberbaum and Farrell and Ware presentstill different proofs demonstrating that no strategies forthe EPD are evolutionarily stable. Unsurprisingly,the paradox is resolved by observing that the three groups of authorseach employ slightly different conceptions of evolutionarystability. The conceptual tangle is unraveled in a series of papers byBendor and Swistak. Two central stability concepts are described andapplied to the EPD below. Readers who wish to compare these with someothers that appear in the literature may consult the following briefguide: