Available in our , in the section entitled "," is a design for shirts, tote bags, and greeting cards that carries the pope's recent quotation of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaelogoson the front, and on the backs of the shirts and bags and inside the greeting cards, the quotations from the Qur'an that appear on the large image that follows these remarks. The Qur'an clearly and repeatedly commands male believers to deal with unbelievers by converting them, by "the sword" if necessary; by subjugating them (and dhimmis live worse lives than slaves do); or by killing them. No other option is available. It is extremely telling that the pope, who made his remarks at the invitation of a Muslim scholar, quoted Manuel II Palaelogos in the course of trying to emphasize the need for reason and civility in religion — and male Muslims responded by murdering a Roman Catholic nun and firebombing a large number of Christian churches.
For example, a conflict arises when a religious community insists onthe absolute truthfulness of all statements recorded in the Bible. Thismeans an intervention on the part of religion into the sphere of science;this is where the struggle of the Church against the doctrines of Galileoand Darwin belongs. On the other hand, representatives of science haveoften made an attempt to arrive at fundamental judgments with respect tovalues and ends on the basis of scientific method, and in this way haveset themselves in opposition to religion. These conflicts have all sprungfrom fatal errors.
Respect essay for students to copy
A major impetus for Arabic science was the patronage of the Abbasidcaliphate (758–1258), centered in Baghdad. Early Abbasid rulers,such as Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786–809) and his successorAbū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Ma’mūn (ruled813–833), were significant patrons of Arabic science. The formerfounded the Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom), whichcommissioned translations of major works by Aristotle, Galen, and manyPersian and Indian scholars into Arabic. It was cosmopolitan in itsoutlook, employing astronomers, mathematicians, and physicians fromabroad, including Indian mathematicians and Nestorian (Christian)astronomers. Throughout the Arabic world, public libraries attached tomosques provided access to a vast compendium of knowledge, whichspread Islam, Greek philosophy, and Arabic science. The use of acommon language (Arabic), as well as common religious and politicalinstitutions and flourishing trade relations encouraged the spread ofscientific ideas throughout the empire. Some of this transmission wasinformal, e.g., correspondence between like-minded people (see Dhanani2002), some formal, e.g., in hospitals where students learned aboutmedicine in a practical, master-apprentice setting, and inastronomical observatories and academies. The decline and fall of theAbbasid caliphate dealt a blow to Arabic science, but it remainsunclear why it ultimately stagnated, and why it did not experiencesomething analogous to the scientific revolution in WesternEurope.