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The only cases which we can think of, as forming possible exceptions to this rule, are cases of antipathy on the part of one portion of the people towards another: the antipathies of religion, for example, or of race. Where these exist, iniquity will be committed, under any form of government, aristocratic or democratic, unless in a higher state of moral and intellectual improvement than any community has hitherto attained.

Freud stated that the individual's will did not operate outside of the society of the family.

In 1859 Mill added a footnote to his original article admitting that his criticisms were now less justified because of recent university reforms.


as having rights beyond family and function.

Includes  (1752), "My Own Life," by David Hume, and a letter by Adam Smith.

. . . I think it very undesirable that anything should be done which would hasten the separation of our colonies. I believe the preservation of as much connexion as now exists to be a great good to them; and though the direct benefit to England is extremely small, beyond what would exist after a friendly separation, any separation would greatly diminish the prestige of England, which prestige I believe to be, in the present state of the world, a very great advantage to mankind.