- this is the sheet we used in class during the writing workshop

The history of African Americans in the United States has been a paradox of incredible triumph in the face of tremendous human tragedy. This site serves as a portal to the vast and growing array of information on the Web and in other sources on the thirty seven million African Americans in the nation.

 -- This essay from a law professor complements the books we are looking at in class.

Scottsboro trials are the case of a group of nine African-American youths brought before the Court of Alabama on charges of rape in 1931. The case became a landmark in the struggle against racism and for a fair trial. The proceedings was conducted by all-white jury with severe violations and thus caused violent protests.


Mr. Lettiere's English on the Web: Research Paper - Scottsboro Boys.

-- A reliable essay from which to draw information about the ILD's involvement.

The first trial took place in Scottsboro, Alabama, and the defendants received a poor defense. All except the yongest, then twelve years old, were convicted of rape and sentenced to the death penalty, sentence usual in cases of rape of a white women in the Southern United States.


Warning Signs on Democracy And Jim Crow Essay You Have To Know

The March 25, 1931, a group of immigrants searching for work travelled in a freight train between Chattanooga and Memphis, Tennessee. Several young whites jumped from the train, notifying the police being attacked by a group of young blacks. The police stopped the train, and found two white girls, Ruby Bates and Victoria Price, who accused the blacks of raping them in one of the railroad cars. The nine young black men were arrested and charged with rape.

SparkNotes: To Kill a Mockingbird: Key Facts

Remember your thesis will have a topic and limiting ideas.
Your topic should include "The Scottsboro trial" and it should make an assertion.
Your limiting ideas should be aligned with the three categories of your note cards.

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The defense attorney Samuel Leibowitz went to Alabama without charging any fee and without any relation to the PCA as he was a democrat. The prosecutor was Thomas E. Knight, Jr., (Knight would be governor of Alabama from 1935 to 1937). Leibowitz unsuccessfully attempted to demand that some jurors were black. During the retrial of Haywood Patterson, one of the alleged victims of rape, Ruby Bates, admitted faking the story for fear of being accused and imprisoned for prostitution, and confessed that none of the nine young black men had raped them. Still, the jury convicted the defendants, believing that the defense of young black had bought his testimony, but Judge Horton set aside the judgment and granted a new trial, in which Patterson was convicted again.

SparkNotes: To Kill a Mockingbird

The Last of the Scottsboro Boys: An Autobiography by Clarence Norris and Sybil D. Washington. Published in New York by Putnam's in 1979.

Making of America University of Michigan

Penalties for the rest of the boys were from 75 years to life imprisonment and the death penalty in the electric chair, but did not run any. Ozie Powell was a victim of a shooting in the face by a guard, which caused him permanent brain damage, he was released in 1936. Seventeen years after his arrest, Patterson managed to escape from prison in 1948, but died of cancer two years later. In 1976, Clarence Norris, the last survivor of the Scottsboro boys receive a pardon from the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, 45 years after his capture.