Once patients accept the conclusions, they are cured (Freud, 1949, p.

226). Spence (1986) is critical of Grünbaum's argument, although he acknowledges that

we simply do not know the amount of contamination, the spread of infection within the session, and the extent to which suggested responses are balanced by unexpected confirmations which support the theory and take the analyst by surprise.

In addition, psychoanalysis is the basis of many other approaches to therapy.

I apologize for this apparent lack of clarity.Lin and Jones both believe that the strengths of psychoanalysis that I detailed do not stack up to the many criticisms of the theory.


Finally, Greenberg finds it "both striking and curious" (p.

15). Freud states that the instincts are the ultimate cause of all behavior.

Although my paper detailed many criticisms of Freud's theory, I believe that these only serve to further illustrate one of psychoanalysis' greatest strengths: its controversiality.


In addition, she believes that psychoanalysis is a scientific method.

It is important that analysts relay the conclusions at which they arrive based on their observations only after the patients have reached the same conclusions on their own accord.

However, many criticisms of Freud are left unresolved.

57). In the final chapters of , Freud (1949) insists that it is neither practical nor fair to scientifically define what is normal and abnormal, and despite his theory's accuracy, "reality will always remain unknowable" (p.

Freud and his theories are criticized on all levels.

He claims that although his theory is correct to the best of his knowledge, "it is unlikely that such generalizations can be universally correct" (Freud, 1949, p.

Attacks range from his intentions to his empirical evidence.

96). In his "Précis of ," Grünbaum (1986) asserts that "while psychoanalysis may thus be said to be scientifically alive, it is currently hardly well" (p.

Instead, the reader is left thinking only of all of Freud's flaws.

During analysis, a process that often takes many years, patients tell analysts both what they feel is important and what they consider to be unimportant.

Freud's influence has been great on many.

First, critics contend that Freud's theory is lacking in empirical evidence and relies too heavily on therapeutic achievements, whereas others assert that even Freud's clinical data are flawed, inaccurate, and selective at best.