In 508 BCE, Athens entered its classical period, which lasted for nearly two centuries. In those two centuries, so much was invented by Greek philosophers and proto-scientists that it has been studied by scholars for thousands of years. One provocative question that scholars have posed is why the Industrial Revolution did not begin with the Greeks. The answer seems to be along the lines of Classic Greeks not having the social organization or sufficient history of technological innovation before wars and environmental destruction ended the Greek experiment. The achievements of Greece over the millennium of their intellectual fecundity are far too many to explore in this essay, but briefly, the Greeks invented: , , , the , a monetized economy, thought, such as , while developing other branches to unprecedented sophistication, and , which included the idea that . Long after the Classic Greek period was over, Hellenic intellectuals and inventors kept making innovations that had major impacts on later civilizations, such as Heron of Alexandria (or some other Greeks) inventing the and .
In a striking similarity to the of evolutionary innovations, many human traits are vestiges of our history but have yet to disappear, but various social managers have used them to exploit the masses. For instance, the has a and developed because those were the most energy-rich foods that existed. But the incredibly high sugar and fat content of processed food vended by Western agribusiness companies plays to those biological proclivities in the name of profit. Diets based on such foods are disastrous for human health, and industrialized peoples, led by the USA, are the . Similarly, in-group "loyalty" (to fight the out-group) is a that arose to ensure survival. Ever since the , a goal of social managers has been forming that in-group cohesion to battle the out-group. There is not much sentient about it. As the and have made clear, people can be arbitrarily split along almost any lines and form an in-group and out-group, and the out-group will then be treated terribly. Darwin's "from the war of nature" comes "higher animals" conclusion in his is mirrored in the work of Marx and Hitler, in that they believed that human "progress" was produced by one social group violently prevailing over another. Hitler avidly read Marx, and may be how he received his "revolutionary" ideas.
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For his 90th birthday, colleagues contributed articles to a Festschrift devoted to “The Poet, Writer, and Historian — A Man of Durable Accomplishments”. These essays honoring Conquest all concern themes that have been central to his research fields, including state terror, ideological control of sciences, public opinion, and the wider issue of the responsibility of intellectuals in the modern world. In his introduction, Paul Hollander emphasizes, using concrete examples, the themes where Robert Conquest’s scholarship was truly path-breaking. He also discusses the repercussions of the research: the possible connections between the analyses of Communism and other ideologies that have spurred and legitimated the use of violence.
Free World War Essays and Papers - 123helpme
By about 45-40 kya, that northward migrating band from the founder group reached Europe. Although the exact route is in dispute, the supports the idea that the group originated from a migration into the , probably via the east end of the Arabian Peninsula. Those invaders are called Cro-Magnons today. When they reached the Levant, they began , and Neanderthals began disappearing. The process took several thousand years at minimum, and has been called a border war with Neanderthals, while others have called it a genetic assimilation. The way that humans drove the megafauna to extinction, and then engaged in warfare as they were driving the megafauna extinction, seems to favor a violent end for Neanderthals, and the “blitzkrieg” of humans migrating across the length and breadth of Australia in a few thousand years was not in evidence for the migration/invasion around the Mediterranean’s periphery. Neanderthals (nor ), do not seem to have gone quietly or easily and may have been the biggest obstacle to Earth’s conquest by behaviorally modern humans.