This result was taken by Chomsky and others to mean that it is impossible for children to learn human languages without having an innate "language organ." As and others show, this was an invalid conclusion; the task of getting 100% on the quiz (which Gold called ) really has nothing in common with the task of performed by children, so Gold's Theorem has no relevance.
With help from contributions from China and other civilizations, much of it coerced, such as what the Western Hemisphere provided to the world (, , , , a , mountains of , and many other benefits), Europe conquered the world, and along the way it tapped a new energy source. The early days of exploiting a new energy source were characterized by relative abundance that led to golden ages that people in later times, after the energy supply was depleted (, , ) looked back to with yearning, if they could even recall those days in their cultural memory. I live in a that is looking back to its golden age, , when energy was cheap and plentiful. Those . The middle-class lifestyles of my childhood are , 50 years later.
The 1930s - The Golden Age of Glamour | Glamourdaze
England had nearly a century’s head start on the competition with its Industrial Revolution, which is why it became the world’s triumphant imperial power, to be later supplanted by its offspring and rival, the USA. Turning coal into an industrial fuel, for smelting iron and powering machines, initiated the Industrial Revolution, and the next big innovation was making machines to replace hands. English inventors , and the 1760s and 1770s were the golden age of spinning innovation, and the , , and were all invented. By the 1790s, people using such machines . I call one worker with a machine outperforming 150 people without one an energy-and-technology-leveraged human. Energy-powered technology allowed a person to vastly outperform humans without it. Was that person 150 times more dexterous? Smarter? Faster? Stronger? The machine did the work, not the person, and energy made it all happen, not the equipment. Without energy to run it, machinery is useless, but without human-made technology, the energy was unavailable. Such machines would never have been without the available energy to run them. Those early spinning machines ran on water power from the .
From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women …
Between 540 BCE and 535 BCE, Carthage and Etruria combined to fight Greek colonies where today’s is and on Corsica. , but it was a “victory” that ended their Corsican settlement. Etruscans ruled Rome in its early days. Around 509 BCE, Rome overthrew its monarchy, established its independence from Etruria, and formed what today is called a republic. It held a tension between the aristocratic ruling class () and the commoners (). Centuries concluded with the , and Etruscans were absorbed into Roman culture and disappeared as a people. Etruscan cities became Roman cities, and Etruria’s fate was a preview of the polyglot empire that Rome would become, as it absorbed conquered peoples.
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As people fled from the increasingly barren and devastated Fertile Crescent, Bronze Age settlements began growing on the Mediterranean’s east end. During the Babylonian reign of , wood was extremely scarce and his agents were charged with finding more wood. Under Hammurabi, illegal woodcutting was a . The search for wood extended past deforested Lebanon to the Mediterranean’s periphery, and Crete’s inhabitants began to trade wood for luxury items with Near East civilizations. The nearly extinct Near East cedar was reserved for palaces and temples in Mesopotamia, but on Crete, cedar was so abundant that it was used for tool handles and had other mundane purposes. Trade with the Near East quickly boosted Crete from a forested hinterland, isolated in the eastern Mediterranean, into a powerful state, at least while its forests lasted. In early , wood was used lavishly. The Minoan success influenced the nearby Peloponnesian peninsula, and Mycenaean civilization began about 1600 BCE. Minoans developed the still-undeciphered script. Mycenaean Greeks developed , which has been largely decoded and ; it is likely that Linear A also was only accounting. About 1700 BCE, the Minoan palaces were destroyed, probably by an earthquake. The palaces were rebuilt on a grand scale, and settlements expanded in the Minoan golden age, which lasted about three centuries. Then a swift decline collapsed the Minoan civilization by 1200 BCE. Mycenaeans then annexed the island.