(2016) PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Because privacy is an emerging right, a discussion of privacy is typicallya list of examples where the right has been recognized, instead of a simpledefinition. Privacy can be discussed in two different directions: the natureof the right and the source of the right (e.g., case law, statute, Constitution).

  (2016) PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the police may legally search,without a search warrant, trash or garbage that individuals put out forcollection. , 486 U.S. 35 (1988). As explainedbelow, search and seizure of material placed in the trash is a clear invasionof an individual's privacy and this Supreme Court holding should be overturned.


(2016) Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

(2016) PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

The mere possibility of intrusion (e.g., burglar entering ahouse) does negate the expectation of privacy in other situations,so it is inconsistent to hold differently for garbage., 486 U.S. at 54 (Brennan, J., dissenting);, 576 A.2d 793, 804 (N.J. 1990).


(2015) PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Religions have persisted, despite their inability to explain the modern world. Here, in fact, we have a stunning reversal: religions play up the "essential mystery" of modern life. Since the world is too complex to understand all at once, in its entirety—even for the scientist—all of us will sometimes shake our heads in wonder at the turn of events in which we find ourselves. Many will find this uncertainty anxiety-provoking, and will look around for a convenient escape.

(2015) PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

This is where we find ourselves. We live in a world that wants the fruits of scientific labor, but refuses the mental discipline of scientific rationality. Just like children, we want to have our cake and to eat it too.

(2015) Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

As social organizations, religions have a dramatic power that hides their essential irrationality. They persist today because they are so effective at constructing group identities and at setting up conflict between the in- and out-groups. For all religions, there is an "us" and a "them." All the ritual and the fellowship associated with religious practice is just a means of continually emphasizing group boundaries and hostility. It is no accident that the history of world religions is a history of violence, hatred and intolerance. The in-group has exclusive access to the truth, so the out-group need not—indeed, should not—be listened to; they can only deceive. And, being liars, and thus, evil, they forfeit their rights as equal members of the community. This is the poisonous logic of religious irrationality.

(2015) Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

The current law in the U.S.A. (federal as well as most states)is that (1) a person has reasonable expectation of privacy forcontents of garbage and (2) a person has relinquished any property interest ingarbage, even when it sits in metal trash cans or opaque plastic bagsat the person's home awaiting collection. This sorry state of affairsneeds correction, probably by legislation.